"What's the goal of a software test?"
I always ask this question when I'm interviewing someone for a software development or test position. It sounds like an overly simplistic question, doesn't it? After all, we all know that:
The goal of software testing is to make sure there are no bugs, right?
Wrong! The goal of writing a software test is to find a bug.
This is why we test software. To locate the bugs and get them fixed. But, what about software that has no bugs?
There is no such thing as 100% "bug free" software. Why is this? The answer is inherent in the very nature of software. It's "soft." When you're working with physical media such as with steel, or concrete, or playdough, the limitations of what you can do are based on physical limitations of that media and the physical environment. With software, you face limitations of memory or CPU speed, but you are really only limited by your imagination. This is what makes software engineering so rewarding, and so much fun. You are basically building virtual structures out of ideas. And, unlike physical media, you can easily tear down, redesign, and rebuild structures is software easily. Sometimes badly. And so, there are bugs and you need new tests to find them.
But, hang on for a minute. In software testing, your goal cannot be to find literally every bug. You have to concentrate on finding the bugs that matter most. To do this requires an understanding of not only how the product under test works, the risks in its design, and how its customers will actually use it. And it requires that the tests that you write be intentionally destructive of and hostile to the product under test. It's often hard for people to be destructive of their own work. This is why you want an independent test team to create and execute tests.
Likewise, having a legacy library of thousands of tests that run cleanly does not guarantee that there are no bugs. It just means that the tests are not finding bugs. You have to constantly review the tests and map the test coverage to what risks the currently faces. Software products are dynamic. The test plans and tests have to adapt to keep pace.
In "The Art of Software Testing," Glenford Myers uses a medical analogy. If you feel ill and undergo medical tests that do not result in a diagnosis, is it accurate to say that the tests were "successful?" No! You're still sick, and your doctor hasn't run the correct test yet!
Ref: Glenford J. Myers, The Art of Software Testing. Wiley, 1979.
Ref: The goal of a software test: When failure equals success - IBM Developerworks article